The Midlatitude Allsky-imaging Network for GeoSpace Observations (MANGO) is a collection of cameras spread across the continental United States with the goal of imaging large-scale airglow and aurora features. MANGO will be used to observe the generation, propagation, and dissipation of medium and large-scale wave activity in the subauroral, mid and low-latitude thermosphere. This network is actively being deployed and will ultimately consist of nine all-sky imagers. These imagers form a network providing continuous coverage over the western United States, including California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, Arizona and Texas extending south into Mexico. This network sees high levels of both medium and large scale wave activity.
The oxygen-related 630-nm airglow has long been used to characterize processes in the upper atmosphere. We use a network of all-sky imagers in across the continental United States to study propagating waves in the upper atmosphere, called traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and expansion in the auroral oval over low latitudes, called stable auroral red (SAR) arcs, which occur during extreme geomagnetic conditions. Although these phenomena span continents, optical observations over North America have been conducted only at isolated camera sites, and a global-scale view is currently lacking. An all-sky camera has a maximum field-of-view of 1200-1500 km2 at ionospheric altitudes between 250 and 350 km, making this instrument an excellent ground-based observing tool to monitor large-scale dynamics in the ionosphere. The combined view from multiple cameras can be used to image continent-scale structures and provides an unprecedented coverage of ionospheric airglow dynamics in the Western United States.
Each camera in the MANGO network has a red filter centered at 630 nm with a view of the entire sky. Designed for low-cost ease of replication, each system is configured entirely from off-the shelf parts with an amateur astronomy-grade camera as the detector. Images are acquired every five minutes and are stitched together to provide a mosaic view of airglow across the entire United States.